Some   Literary  Terms Authors

                Should Know !

1. " Narrator-"A narrator is the person from whose perspective a story is told. The narrator narrates the text. A narrator only exists in fictional texts or in a narrative poem. A narrator may be a character in the text; however, the narrator does not have to be a character in the text."

2. Point Of View-  "Point of view  is what the character or narrator telling the   story can see (his or her perspective). The author chooses “who” is to tell the   story by determining the point of view. The author chooses “who” is to tell the   story by determining the point of view."

3. First Person-

"The definition of first person is the grammatical category of forms that designate a speaker referring to himself or herself. First-person pronouns are I, we, me, us, etc. First-person pronouns are I, we, me, us, etc."

4. "Third Person-Writing in third person is writing from the third-person point of view, or outsider looking in, and uses pronouns like he, she, it, or they."

*** Deep Point Of View- The way of writing in fiction stories that silences the narrators voice and takes the reader directly into the characters mind.

5. Voice-"In fiction writing, the term "voice" has two different meanings. The author's voice refers to a writer's style, the quality that makes their writing unique."

6. Style-"The style in writing can be defined as the way a writer writes. It is the technique that an individual author uses in his writing. It varies from author to author, and depends upon one’s syntax, word choice, and tone. It can also be described as a “ voice ” that readers listen to when they read the work of a writer."

7. Irony-" Irony is a style of writing in which there is a noticeable, often humorous, difference between what is said and the intended meaning"

8. Falling Action-"Falling action meaning: The falling action is the point of the plot following the climax in the story. It brings the story to its conclusion. "

9. Plot-"In a narrative or creative writing, a plot is the sequence of events that make up a story, whether it’s told, written, filmed, or sung. The plot is the story, and more specifically, how the story develops, unfolds, and moves in time"

10. Setting-" Setting is an environment or surrounding in which an event or story takes place."  

11.  Background-"As the name suggests, background information means all information that a reader requires to increase his awareness "

12. Protagonist-"Protagonist definition, the leading character, hero, or heroine of a drama or other literary work."

13. Antagonist-"An antagonist in a work of fiction is a character who opposes a protagonist, the main character who often is the story's hero. An antagonist, when there is one, provides the story's conflict by creating an obstacle for a story's protagonist."

14. Climax-": Climax is often identified as the highest point of interest in a story. It is the moment the rising action begins to transition in the falling action of the story’s plot. At this point, the conflict is at the highest point of tension."

15. Flashback-" A flashback is a scene the insertion of a scene that interrupts the present story in order to tell of a past event. What is a Flashback? Flashbacks are scenes that are inserted in a story that take the reader back to an earlier time. They are flashed back to an event that happened in the past."

16. Forshadowing-"Foreshadowing is a literary device in which a writer gives an advance hint of what is to come later in the story. Foreshadowing often appears at the beginning of a story, or a chapter, and helps the reader develop expectations about the coming events in a story."

17. Imagery-"Imagery is descriptive language used to appeal to a reader’s senses: touch, taste, smell, sound, and sight. By adding these details, it makes our writing more interesting."

18. Metaphor-"A Metaphor is a figure of speech that makes an implicit, implied, or hidden comparison between two things that are unrelated, but which share some common characteristics. In other words, a resemblance of two contradictory or different objects is made based on a single or some common characteristics."

19. Personification-" Personification is a literary device that gives humanlike characteristics to non-human entities. Personification is a type of figurative language."

20. Satire-"

Satire is a technique employed by writers to expose and criticize foolishness and corruption of an individual or a society, by using humor, irony, exaggeration, or ridicule. It intends to improve humanity by criticizing its follies and foibles."

21. Simile-"A simile is a figure of speech and type of metaphor that compares two different things using the words “like” or “as.” The purpose of a simile is to help describe one thing by comparing it to another thing that is perhaps seemingly unrelated."

22. Tone-"one, in a written composition, is an attitude of a writer toward a subject or an audience. The tone is generally conveyed through the choice of words, or the viewpoint of a writer on a particular subject. Every written piece comprises a central theme or subject matter. The manner in which a writer approaches this theme and subject is the tone."

 23. Dialogue-In fiction it's the conversation between two or more characters

     Three types-   1. Inner Dialogue- where characters are speaking to                             themselves.

      2. Outer Dialogue-  when the conversation is  with other characters

      3. Realistic Dialogue- all characters are different, with different personalities.             They speak differently.  An author will use these differences to reveal the             character's personalities through speech, and other verbal expressions.


24. Pace- 

  "In literature, pace, or pacing is the speed at which a story is told—not necessarily the speed at which the story takes place. ... The pace is determined by the length of the scenes, how fast the action moves, and how quickly the reader is provided with information."

25. Conflict-  " In literature, a conflict is a literary device characterized by a struggle between two opposing forces. Conflict provides crucial tension in any story and is used to drive the narrative forward"

 Types Of Conflict

 1.Person vs. self

 2. Person vs. Nature

 3. Person vs.Fate

 4.Person vs. Society

 5. Person vs. The unknown

 6.Person vs. Technology/Machinery

  26. Symbolism-Is a literary device that uses symbols, be they words, people, marks, locations, or abstract ideas  to represent something beyond the literal meaning"

Examples-A dove- represents Peace

 A Red Rose- A symbol of Love

Black - usually a symbol of death

 A Cross- Symbol of Christianity 

27. ARC- ( Advanced Readers Copy )  Copies of a new book given out by publishers to booksellers, libraries,  or journalist,  before the book is printed for mass production.

28. Story ARC- "Universal to both fiction and nonfiction, the narrative arc (also called the “story arc”) refers to the structure and shape of a story. This arc is made up of the events in your story — the sequence of occurrences in the plot — and determines the peaks and plateaus that set the pace."

29. Character arcs in writing-
" A character arc is the transformation or inner journey of a character over the course of a story. If a story has a character arc, the character begins as one sort of person and gradually transforms into a different sort of person in response to changing developments in the story."

There are many more and as you advance as a writer you will discover them, but for now, we will deal with these.  Study them, look them up for more information, and commit them to memory.  They will help you to grow as a writer!